In 1912, Beys Afroyim immigrated to the United States and became a naturalized citizen in 1926. In 1950 he went to Israel, and the following year voted in their elections. When he tried to renew his passport in 1960, the State Department refused his request, citing the Nationality Act of 1940. That Act stripped Americans of their citizenship if they voted in foreign elections. Afroyim sued the Secretary of State alleging that it was a violation of the 5th and 14th Amendments to annul his citizenship, which he hadn’t renounced. The United States Supreme Court agreed (in a 5-4 decision).
On May 29, 1967, Justice Black, writing for the majority of the Court, explained– the government had no legal authority to “rob a citizen of his citizenship.” The opinion quotes Former Chief Justice Marshall who once said—Congress enjoys the “power to confer citizenship, not a power to take it away.”