On today’s date in 1919 the United States Supreme Court heard oral arguments in the cases Schenck v. United States and Baer v. United States. The cases involved Schenck and Baer, members of the Socialist party, who were responsible for distributing literature that urged men to avoid military service at a time the U.S. was at war with Germany. They were found guilty of committing crimes under the Espionage Act, so they appealed their cases up to the Supreme Court. They claimed their speech was protected by the 1st Amendment. The Supreme Court disagreed and affirmed the lower court’s decision. The Supreme Court’s often quoted reasoning was—“”[t]he most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.” Justice Holmes further explained—“[w]hen a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured….” Since 1919, however, the Court has interpreted the First Amendment more broadly.