In 1957 the Alabama legislature passed a law changing the boundaries of the City of Tuskegee to guarantee the election of white candidates. Only four or five African American voters were left within the City limits, yet not a single white voter was effected by the redistricting. African American residents sued the Mayor claiming the law was unconstitutional. The case was entitled, Gomillion v. Lightfoot, Mayor of Tuskegee.
A lower court dismissed the case, and an appellate court affirmed the dismissal. The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court. You can listen to the Court proceedings at https://goo.gl/Z9vh46. On November 14, 1960, the Court held if African American residents were intentionally “fenced out” of voting, then the State overstepped its authority. The Court remanded the case to the trial court for further proceedings.